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High School Courses

Business Courses

731 - Accounting

Prerequisite: must be in grade 10 or 11 and receive teacher recommendation

The fundamental aspects of accounting, to include setting up T accounts, building balance sheets and general ledgers, producing income statements and generating other financial reports, are addressed. Emerging accountants are expected to develop skills and capacities needed to make prudent accounting decisions.

757 - Marketing
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 11
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: must be an 11th grade student and receive teacher recommendation

A focus on market segmentation to campaign development allows rising marketing executives to learn how to communicate with businesses, make presentations, and design marketing programs that attract consumers.

759 - Business Concepts
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 10
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: must be a 10th or 11th grade student and receive teacher recommendation

Communication and marketing skills are focused on. All aspects of running a business, particularly in a tech-savvy world, are explored. Additional topics include business ethics, management principles, and product creation. Through the Game Creation Project students demonstrate mastery of course content by generating a board game from idea to prototype development.

760 - Personal Finance
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 12
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 12th grade student who receives teacher recommendation

Designed to help seniors manage their present and future financial responsibilities, this course heightens participant awareness of money management, budgeting, financial goal attainment, the use of credit, insurance regulations, investment strategies, and consumer rights. A final Case Study Analysis Project is a valuable part of this course.

763 - Advanced Marketing (similar to an Honors course in a primary discipline)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Grade Level: 12
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: completion of Marketing 757 with a final course average of 85+ and teacher recommendation, open to seniors only.

An exploration of necessary variation in marketing approaches and strategies is matched to diverse business opportunities that have specific demands. Student work together as marketing teams on real projects from real companies on a local and global scale. Advanced Marketing is a project/portfolio based course with an independent study component.

764 - Business Law
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 11
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 11th or 12th grade student, strong writing skills, and teacher recommendation

A foundation of legal issues pertaining to business and personal law is provided. After identifying legal issues, students are challenged to apply law and ethics to situations. Specific focus points include: formation of laws, contract law, employment law, responsibilities of minors, consumer protection, business start-up, copyright and patent law, and leader skills. The course deploys a blog (www.lsibusinesslaw.com) for highlighting practice trials.

Computers & Technology Courses

617 - Computer Networking (9th Grade Cluster)
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 9
Final Examination: None

This course is structured into the three main branches of technology: information, materials, and systems. Students will explore the concepts in databases and hypermedia. Special areas of emphasis include, but are not limited to: Advances Microsoft suite programs, Block coding, Networking, and database. Students will also explore new developments in technology and the implications these will have on their lives. The issues surrounding moral and ethical “Digital Citizenship” will be addressed throughout this course.

627 - Multimedia Design (Grade 10 Cluster)
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 10
Final Examination: None

Students in this class use critical thinking, problem solving, and cooperative learning to design and create a variety of multimedia projects. Special areas of emphasis include, but are not limited to: Advanced Microsoft Word, advanced Microsoft PowerPoint, advanced Microsoft Excel, Photoshop, Creative Adobe Suite, web design, and Coding. The issues surrounding moral and ethical “Digital Citizenship” will be addressed throughout this course.

647 - Microsoft Excel (Grade 11 - 1/2 Year)
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 1.00
Grade Level: 11
Final Examination: None
Duration : 1/2 year

Students in this class use critical thinking, problem solving, and cooperative learning to design and create a variety of projects. Special areas of emphasis include, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, embedding charts, entering formulas, functions, formatting, web queries, and the "What-if analysis using the software, Mac Microsoft Excel 2011. The issues surrounding moral and ethical “Digital Citizenship” will be addressed throughout this course.

648 - Computer Applications and Web Design (Grade 12 - 1/2 year)
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 12
Final Examination: None
Duration: 1/2 year

Students in this class use critical thinking, problem solving, and cooperative learning to design and create a variety of multimedia projects. Special areas of emphasis include, but are not limited to: Spreadsheet, and PowerPoint skills are reinforced at the start of the semester. Students will learn Web design using basic HTML coding; how to work with tables, design menus, rollovers, and forms. Video(s) are incorporated to create a more interactive and interesting web site. The issues surrounding moral and ethical “Digital Citizenship” will be addressed throughout this course.

English Courses

111 - English 9
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

English 9 is a rigorous course that focuses on critical literacy skills and a focused approach to writing techniques, including data based writing. A wide variety of literature, both fiction and nonfiction, from a diverse collection of authors is presented to the students by genre. Emphasis is placed on critical thought, analysis, and evidence based arguments and interpretation. Vocabulary acquisition skills are taught within the context of the literature. The course builds on the work done in middle school and develops individual student’s writing ability centered on the six traits of good writing: ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and grammar. Students will engage in research, culminating in an evidence based research paper based on topics relative to the literature being studied. Students are encouraged to see writing as an ever developing skill. Students engage in academic discussions and deliver oral presentations based on their individual and/or group work in class.

114 - English 9H
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: teacher recommendation

English 9H is an extensive study of all the genres of literature, including short stories, speeches, essays, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. Multiple novels are also studied to enhance the student’s literary analysis and close reading skills. The course also has a central focus on improving students’ writing abilities through the composition of expository, narrative, descriptive, and persuasive essays. A research paper assists students in utilizing multiple sources of information, citing evidence, and understanding all steps of the writing process. Throughout the year, critical literacy skills are covered in depth. Additionally, students’ grammar skills are further developed with the introduction of diagramming sentences, as well as a review of the eight parts of speech, phrases, verbals, clauses, and sentences. By the conclusion of the course, students will have mastered many of the foundational skills essential to achieving success on the Advanced Placement English exam in 12th grade.

121 - English 10
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

The English 10 program includes a survey of the various genres of literature. This course builds on the instruction in 9th grade with a continued emphasis upon analytical and critical interpretation of text. Students will cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support an analysis of both the explicit and inferential. Building upon the skills taught in 9th grade, students will engage in research to practice critical thinking, analysis, and synthesis which will be demonstrated in a final paper. Students will also practice presentation and academic discussion skills.

124 - English 10H
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of English 9H and teacher recommendation

English 10H is a rigorous, writing-intensive course that covers all genres of literature including short stories, speeches, essays, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama (Greek, Elizabethan, Shakespearean, and contemporary). Throughout their reading, students will learn to go beyond the literal meaning of texts by engaging in exercises focusing on expression, critical analysis, and evaluation. Students activate prior knowledge through questioning texts, researching authors, and determining what they know about the period in which the work was written. Students will complete an exhaustive study of multiple novels centering on different themes. Students also compose a research paper that builds on their writing acumen from English 9 Honors and previous courses. Grammar study continues with the mastering of verb and pronoun usage and agreement. The ultimate goal of English 10H is to further prepare the student for mastery of the Advanced Placement English exam in 12th grade.

131 - English 11
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

This class is designed to improve speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. There is a strong focus on helping students develop critical thinking skills. Students will read literature from a variety of authors across a vast amount of genres. Every student will delve into poetry, short stories, novels, plays, and short nonfiction essays to improve reading skills. Students will engage in analytical and persuasive writing assignments on a consistent basis, and will use inquiry and research to deepen their understanding of a topic and develop an evidence-based research paper.

134 - English 11H
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of English 10H and teacher recommendation

The English 11 Honors course is an accelerated curriculum that challenges students to explore and cultivate an understanding of central themes in a mixture of classic, modern, and contemporary literature written by authors from culturally diverse backgrounds. This course is a college-level composition course and a college-preparatory literature course. Students will learn how fiction and nonfiction authors tailor the style of their language for various contexts, purposes, and audiences. Emphasis is placed on the reflective reading of literary texts, relationships between literature and real life, and the composition of increasingly elaborate essays. Students will also use inquiry and research to deepen their understanding of a topic and develop an evidence-based argument research paper. Consistent and frequent class participation is required.

141 - English 12
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

English 12 is a college preparatory course centered on giving students exposure to the literature, analysis, and writing that they will encounter in a university or career setting. Students are presented with a wide range of literature, such as novels, short stories, drama, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and Shakespeare. Special emphasis is placed on international authors, especially British writers. Literary theories are covered in depth, and students will be required to apply these skills to a variety of texts. Topics such as business writing and the college essay composition process are addressed in order to prepare the students for the next level of learning. Students will also work on research techniques, effective writing strategies, critical literacy abilities, and presentation skills that they will apply to reading or writing intensive college courses.

144 - English 12H
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of English 11H and teacher recommendation

The 12th Grade Honors English Course is designed to expose students to a wide variety of texts, authors, and genres. Students will engage with challenging texts that force them to think critically and analyze in an in-depth fashion. Students will strengthen their skills through writing in a multiplicity of modes throughout the course of the school year. Lastly, students will learn the value of scholarly conversation through the colorful discussions they will have regarding the texts to be studied. Students will also use inquiry and research to deepen their understanding of a topic and develop an evidence-based argument research paper.

145 - WRT 105 Practices in Academic Writing
Credit: 1
Final examination: Syracuse University Approved Final Paper

FINAL EXAMINATION: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY APPROVED FINAL PAPER

WRT 105 is an introduction to academic writing. In this class, students will write, revise, edit and reflect on their writing with the support of the teacher and peers. Students will engage critically with the opinions and voices of others as they develop a greater understanding of how their writing can have an effect on themselves and their environment. Students will have regular opportunities not just to write, but also to reflect on writing situations and their own development as a writer.

WRT 138 follows WRT 105 as a creative writing seminar at the Honors level.

146 - AP English {AP Exam Required}
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: Advanced Placement English Literature Examination

Prerequisite: successful completion of English 11H AND teacher recommendation

FINAL EXAMINATION: ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH LITERATURE EXAMINATION REQUIRED

An AP English Literature and Composition course engages students in the careful reading and critical analysis of literature. Through the close reading of selected texts, students deepen their understanding of the ways writers use language to provide both meaning and pleasure for their readers. As they read, students consider a work’s structure, style and themes, as well as such smaller-scale elements as the use of figurative language, imagery, symbolism and tone. The works taught in the course require careful, deliberate reading. The approach to analyzing and interpreting the material involves students in learning how to make careful observations of textual detail and establish connections among their observations. Writing assignments in the course will address the critical analysis of literature and will include expository, analytical, and argumentative essays. In addition, students will use inquiry and research to deepen their understanding of a topic and develop an evidence-based argument research paper.

WRT 138 - Creative Writing Seminar

WRT 138 follows WRT 105 as a creative writing seminar at the Honors level.

Fine Arts Courses

635 - Art Appreciation I
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 11
Final Examination: None

Art Appreciation I is an elective course given for the juniors in the fall semester. A range of subjects will be introduced to the juniors, including drawing, perspective, gesture and contour drawing, use of color, positive and negative space, and use of line and tone as much as possible. A variety of media will be used such as pencil, ink, brush, pastel, charcoal, watercolor and acrylics.

646 - Art Appreciation II
Credit: 0.5
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 12
Final Examination: None

Art Appreciation II is an elective course provided for seniors in the spring semester. Seniors will continue experiencing the process of artistic creation and expression choosing personal art techniques for which they have an affinity to produce work suitable for display in addition to assembling a series of personal art creations.

Foreign Language Courses

510 - Spanish 2

Students will review the learned structures and extend their knowledge into the remaining structures which compose the basic constructs required for the comprehension and use of the language. Vocabulary will also be augmented. Students will resume their practice with the four skills required for fluency.

511 - Spanish 1
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00 / 1.08
Final Examination: departmental exam

Students take Spanish 1 as the first of three years of language required for graduation. This course offers basic Spanish language practice and vocabulary.

512 - Middlebury Language Program
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: Middlebury online examination

Students who work well independently can request to take a variety of languages using the Middlebury computer-based instructional courses.

514 - Spanish 2 Honors

Prerequisite: 90+ end-of-course average in Spanish 8 and teacher recommendation or Department approval.

Students conclude their second level with continual review, practice and amplification of their knowledge of vital language structures needed to ensure their continued progress and with the target of ultimate fluency in Spanish.

525 - Spanish 3 Honors

Prerequisite: final course grade of 90+ in Spanish 2 Honors and teacher recommendation or Department approval.

This course is a continuation of the work of the second level of Spanish with emphasis on grammar, vocabulary, conversation and self-expression (both oral and written). Oral work includes "situations" in which the student must have enough vocabulary and grammar at his disposal to deal with a situation in which he has been artificially placed. Students need to take and pass a Regents Comprehensive Equivalent Exam to receive credit.

At the conclusion of Level 3, the regular language program concludes. Students may continue on to College in the High School levels only by meeting or exceeding the prerequisites and with the approval of their language teachers. Students in these courses enroll in a college-level program operating under the auspices of Hudson Valley Community College. Students who successfully complete these courses receive three college credits per course.

Prerequisite: a student may be eligible for college credit based on 90+ average in previous levels and teacher recommendation or Departmental approval.

529 - Spanish 3
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00

As the culminating course for meeting graduation requirements, Spanish 3 invites students, who may not pursue language in college, to read, write, and apply basic Spanish language in functional ways.

531 - Spanish 3
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08

Prerequisite: a grade of 85+ in Spanish 2 Enhanced

This course is a continuation of the work of the second level of Spanish with emphasis on grammar, vocabulary, conversation and self-expression (both oral and written). Oral work includes "situations" in which the student must have enough vocabulary and grammar at his disposal to deal with a situation in which he has been artificially placed. Students need to take and pass a departmental final examination to receive credit.

At the conclusion of Level 3, the regular language program concludes. Students may continue on to the University in High School levels only by meeting or exceeding the prerequisites and with the approval of their language teachers.

541 - HVCC Spanish 200

Students in this course are engaged in Spanish at a University level. Coursework consists of review and extension of grammar, expansion of vocabulary and the enhancement of reading and writing skills. Conversational fluency is cultivated through the discussion of selected readings in Spanish. Students are also exposed to music, poetry, short films and current events in order to enhance reading and listening skills, along with encouraging their engagement with the Hispanic world.

542 - HVCC Spanish 201

Students in this course are engaged in Spanish at a University level with an in-depth study of various works of literature. They may be required to read a novel in Spanish while short or long films, music and cultural activities that relate to the readings are incorporated into the course. Students actively engage with the readings by reading, analyzing, presenting, and sometimes performing in Spanish.

574 - Spanish 7 Honors

Prerequisite: 90+ course average in Spanish 6, teacher recommendation or Department approval.

Honors language courses tend to move at a faster pace and include more complex words and sentence structures.

History Courses

211 - Global History 1 - Global History to 1603
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

This course studies the evolution of societies across time and place, from the world’s prehistoric beginnings to the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Students will uncover the culture, people, events, geographical, and religious influences, as well as the technological advances in certain historical periods. The course will show that history is a process of change in which each society, to a degree, borrows and improves upon earlier societies. By the end of this course, the student will understand the benefit of studying a world that seems much different than the one we live in, but is similar to ours in many profound ways. Also, the skills and knowledge they will develop and acquire will benefit them in preparation for the Global History 2 examination in their sophomore year.

214 - Global History 1H (Global History to 1603)
Credit: 1
Weight : 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

This course is the first of two years of studying Global History. The curriculum begins with Prehistory and culminates with the end of the Tudor dynasty in England in 1603. The major objective is to provide the students with a better understanding of the different people and their culture in the following regions: Africa, India, China, Japan, Europe, and Latin America. The student will acquire and develop skills, such as critical thinking, writing, and historical document analysis.

A separate textbook covering the literature from those areas is also used. Marking period projects and debates are also required. Two plays are read in conjunction with the material; one per semester.

221 - Global History 2 (From 1603 to Present)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Global History

This course in Western Civilization starts with the European Enlightenment and continues to the modern world of the 21st century. Interactions with other non-western cultures are covered during the same time period. Advanced studies in geography and map skills are stressed.

224 - Global History 2H (From 1603 to the Present)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 85+ in Global Studies 1H and teacher recommendation

This course is an advanced study of the unique growth patterns, spread, and increasing globalization of the civilization in the West, its spiritual, intellectual, and material characteristics within and beyond the confines of the evolving state systems from the early modern period to the 21st century.

The course will include an advanced focus on the physical geography, population demographics, spatial behaviors and economical and political geography. Key works of literature will also be read in context with the times.

226 - AP European History {AP Exam Required}
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: AP Exam in European History in May

Prerequisite: 90+ in Global History 1 Honors and teacher recommendation

AP EXAM IS REQUIRED

Participation in this course presupposes a keen knowledge and interest in European History. The course spans from the Renaissance (1400) to the conclusion of the Cold War in 1991. Students will develop an understanding of the principal political, economic, and social themes of the period, as well as analyzing historical evidence. Extensive reading and outlining is a must. Debating skills are refined, and oral presentations are frequent. Scholarly research is also expected.

Note: a student must obtain a 3+ on the A.P. European History exam in order to secure a seat in A.P. US History. Otherwise he will be reassigned to US History Honors.

231 - US History and Government
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Global History 2

This course of study involves the U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights, and the study of modern America from 1850 to the present. The students will have an understanding and appreciation of the various political, economic and social forces that have shaped this country. This awareness should lead to a greater appreciation of American values and institutions in preparing students for American citizenship.

234 - US History and Government Honors
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 85+ in Global History 2H or 90+ in Global History 2 and teacher recommendation

The time period of this course covers the Federal Period to the present. There is an emphasis on interpretation and analysis of the political, economic and social forces and events that have shaped modern U.S. history. This emphasis on critical thinking and writing skills will be accompanied by supplemental readings.

235 - AP US History (and Government) {AP exam required}
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: AP Exam in US History in May

Prerequisite: 90+ in Global Studies 2H or AP European History and teacher recommendation

AP EXAM REQUIRED

This course surveys U.S. history from the beginning of the Colonial Period to the present day. Students will explore the various economic, political, and social aspects of American History and how those aspects have changed over time from a variety of perspectives. A substantial amount of time is spent understanding the domestic and international development of the U.S. as well as our constitutional and legal foundations as a democracy. Also, students will play an active and vital role during discussion presentations and debates in order to understand and make more meaningful the major ideas, eras, figures, themes, developments, and turning points associated with the history of the United States.

242/243 - 242 - Economics and Decision Making/243 - Participation in Government

Prerequisite: successful completion of an 11th grade History course

Duration: ½ year, each course

These are separate semester courses and students must pass BOTH courses in order to graduate. The study of economics will provide students with the economic knowledge and skills that will enable them to function as informed and economically literate citizens in our society. The course is designed to be used for students of all ability levels. It emphasizes rational decision making, and it encourages students to become wiser consumers as well as better citizens. The purpose of the government course is to foster a greater understanding and appreciation of the workings of the American political system. The concept of the “office of the citizen” is taught to reinforce the value and necessity of citizen participation in a functioning democracy. Students are also encouraged to get involved with local government and community service projects to see how they personally can make a difference in their local areas.

247 - Advanced Placement Economics (Microeconomics)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: teacher-developed final and AP Microeconomics examination in May

Prerequisite: 90+ in AP US History and teacher recommendation

A.P. Exam required.

This AP course in Economics is designed to meet the needs of students who have taken US History at the Advanced Placement level. “The purpose of an AP course in microeconomics is to give students a thorough understanding of the principles of economics that apply to the functions of individual decision makers, both consumers and producers, within the economics system. It places primary emphasis on the nature and functions of product markets, and includes the study of factor markets and of the role of government in promoting greater efficiency and equity in the economy.”- The College Board Course Description

JROTC Courses

612 - JROTC 9
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 9
Final Examination: None

Emphasis is on the importance of understanding the ethics and principles underlying good citizenship, selfless service, responsibility and leadership. The primary goal is to motivate cadets to be better citizens, particularly when engaged in service-learning. Students examine the evolution of U.S. citizenship and freedoms stated in the Bill of Rights, the history and organizational structure of the JROTC Program and of Army and the traditions, customs, and courtesies of the military. Students focus on health issues and being successful in high school, college, and future careers.

622 - JROTC 10
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 10
Final Examination: None

During the second year students learn basic details about leadership situations. The program focuses on techniques of communication, leadership labs, history, career opportunities and the role of the United States Army. This year also gives students the opportunity to engage in 30 hours of first aid training and become informed about living a healthy lifestyle. Cadets spend time working in groups and learn about the importance of teamwork. Tenth grade JROTC focuses on how the federal government works and the importance of our Constitution, rights, and liberties. Service learning is introduced and discussed.

632 - JROTC 11
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 11
Final Examination: None

The third year of the JROTC Program gives students the opportunity to study and put into practice the basic principles of good leadership with emphasis on character, personal and professional values, and on attributes required to be successful. This year also introduces students to communication skills, leadership, career exploration, technology awareness and the basics of financial planning, budgeting, savings and investments, and insurance. Other topics, such as public speaking, college preparation, time management, and working collaboratively with others are blended into the curriculum.

642 - JROTC 12
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: 12
Final Examination: None

Select seniors have the opportunity to provide leadership for the entire high school. This opportunity gives them practical experience in leading and managing. Some students earn leadership positions as commanders and staff officers. They are responsible for the daily operations of cadet companies to include: coordinating, planning and executing daily inspections, drill competitions, parades, and numerous other events. They act as assistant instructors and continue to develop their leadership skills in preparation for life after graduation.

Leadership Courses

100 - Introduction to Leadership Analysis

Prerequisite: application, essay, minimum average grade of 85+, two teachers who will sign-off on the student’s appropriateness for the seminar, and parent approval

Leadership 100 is a semester long seminar that utilizes graduate-level juried research articles to inform students about the elements of dynamic complexity, ambiguity, and indecisiveness – as they impact leader effectiveness. The seminar is experiential-based (hands-on activities) as it explores the leader, the act of leading, and the outcome of leadership. Students in grades 8 through twelve can apply. The mid-term exam is participation in the low ropes challenge course at UAlbany. The seminar culminates with a trip to Washington, DC, where students inquire of a Senator or Congressman how the three elements are addressed at the Federal level. Dinner that evening is with a Marine Corps General officer who addresses the same elements in context of high-tempo operations. The seminar is taken on a pass-fail basis to encourage risk-taking at the intellectual level. A final project requires students to complete a case study associated with a real issue at La Salle Institute. Throughout the seminar, students read and periodically discuss The Other 90% by Robert Cooper.

200 - Advanced Leadership Practicum

Prerequisite: successful completion of L100, two teacher recommendations, and parent approval

Leadership 200 requires students to gain access to a Board-of-Director, community organization, Town Council, or Chamber of Commerce meeting. Utilizing insights from L100, students receive highly theoretical constructs and attempt to understand them in light of their meeting attendance – where they witness live interactions that often emulate the constructs being studied. The highlight of the course invites each student to literally pilot a Cessna 172 aircraft. The effects of lift, drag, altitude, pitch, yaw, and their interdependence are carefully considered while being juxtaposed to leading. The final project either involves a short paper detailing student comprehension of how these dynamic and complex constructs relate or, on occasion, there is an opportunity to conduct a leader retreat for middle school students, for example. This course is also pass-fail graded to encourage intellectual risk taking. L200 students have the option of returning to Washington, DC. This time, they serve as mentors while using the aviation paradigm to help L100 students gain deeper appreciation for the art of leading in complex environs.

Mathematics Courses

311 - Algebra 1
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Math 8

Students in this course focus on topics associated with elementary Algebra, linear and quadratic functions, inequalities and absolute value, coordinate Geometry, probability, and statistics.

312 - Algebra 1-2

Prerequisite: pass Geometry

Students in this course will study algebraic topics, expand their Geometry base, and will be exposed to Trigonometry. Topics include: review the essentials of Algebra such as absolute value, factoring, solving equations and compound inequalities, relations and functions,
operations, patterns, and functions. Then students will explore trigonometric graphs, exponential functions, and statistics.

314 - Geometry Honors
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 92+ final course grade in Math 384

The content of this course is similar to course 321. Topics will include basic tools of Geometry, reasoning and proof, parallel and perpendicular lines, congruent triangles, relationships within triangles, polygons and quadrilaterals, similarity of geometric figures, right triangles and
Trigonometry, transformations, area, three dimensional Geometry, surface area and volume, circles, locus, constructions and probability. Work within many units will be developed in even greater depth and explored at a higher level of difficulty. Assessments will reflect this challenge level.

321 - Geometry
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 1

Students in this course will study the essential topics of geometry. Topics to include basic tools of geometry, reasoning and proof, parallel and perpendicular lines, congruent triangles, relationships within triangles, polygons and quadrilaterals, similarity of geometric figures,
right triangles and Trigonometry, transformations, area, three dimensional geometry, surface area and volume, circles, locus, constructions and probability.

325 - Algebra 2 Honors

Prerequisite: 92+ final course grade in Geometry Honors

The content of this course is advanced algebraic operations, expands their geometric base, variables and expressions, equations and inequalities, patterns, functions, relations, measurements and statistics and probability. Work in many units will be developed in even greater depth and explored at a higher level of difficulty. Assessments will reflect this challenge level.

332 - Algebra 2

Prerequisite: pass Geometry

Students in this course will study advanced algebraic operations, expand their geometric base, and study the essential topics of Trigonometry. Topics include: the geometry of the circle, absolute value, relations and functions, transformations, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, regressions, trigonometric functions, trigonometric graphs, trigonometric
applications, trigonometric identities and equations, binomial theorem and probability, and statistics.

334 - High School Calculus Honors
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 92+ final course average in Algebra 2 Honors

Students in this course will learn a solid foundation of Calculus in preparation for taking the AP Calculus course the following year or in preparation for college mathematics. Topics include: functions and their graphs, limits and their properties, differentiation, applications of
differentiation, integration, exponential and logarithmic functions in Calculus, and trigonometric functions in calculus.

340 - High School Pre-Calculus
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: completion of Algebra 2 or Algebra 2 Honors

Topics include the algebra of functions, including polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. This course also covers trigonometric functions including definitions, identities, and trigonometric equations, applications, as well as properties and graphs of
trigonometric functions and their inverses. Also included are the Law of Sines, Law of Cosines, polar coordinates, vectors, and conic sections. The course also contains systems of equations and inequalities, linear and quadratic equations and inequalities, graphs of polynomials, and the
binomial theorem.

341 - High School Calculus
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 80+ in Course 331

Students in this course will spend the first half of the year reviewing the essentials of Algebra, Geometry, and Algebra 2 w/Trigonometry. Topics include: algebra, linear equations and functions, simultaneous linear equations, logarithms, exponential functions, quadratic functions in one variable, trigonometry, and solutions of the triangle. The second half of the course includes analytic geometry and basic calculus. Topics include: the conic sections and analysis and applications of differential and integral calculus to algebraic and selected transcendental functions.

346 - AP Calculus (AB) {AP exam required}
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: AP Calculus AB exam in May

Prerequisite: 92+ final course grade in High School Calculus and teacher recommendation

AP EXAM REQUIRED

Students in this course will study topics in differential and integral calculus. After a review of the essentials of calculus, the concept of limit is introduced leading to a study of continuity and differentiation. Applications of the derivative in optimization, related rates, and curve sketching for algebraic, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions will be followed by an introduction to integration and simple applications.

348 - AP Statistics {AP exam required}
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: AP Statistics exam in May

Prerequisite: successful completion of Calculus, Calculus Honors, Algebra 2 or Pre-Calculus with teacher recommendation

AP EXAM REQUIRED

Students in this course will receive a comprehensive introduction to probability models and statistical methods. Students are exposed to four broad themes. (1) Exploring data: describing patterns and departures from patterns; (2) Sampling and Experimentation Planning and
conducting a study; (3) Anticipation Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability and simulation; (4) Statistical Inference; Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses. Topics include: probability, random variables (discrete and continuous), joint
probability, simple random samples, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, linear regression and correlation.

384 - Algebra 1H
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 92 + in Math 374

This is an advanced mathematics course. Topics include: reviewing equations and inequalities, analyzing linear equations and functions, solving systems of linear equations and inequalities, using matrices and determinants, exploring quadratic functions, using polynomials and polynomial functions, using powers, roots and radicals, exploring exponential and logarithmic functions, using rational equations and functions, exploring quadratic relations and conic sections, using sequences and series, probability and statistics, exploring trigonometric ratios and functions, and exploring trigonometric graphs, identities and equations. Emphasis will be placed on algebraic applications. Students will use manipulatives and technology throughout the course.

716 - HVCC Calculus 1 Math 180
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: HVCC mathematics department-approved final exam

Prerequisite: 90+ final course grade in Algebra 2 and teacher approval

Final examination: HVCC Mathematics approved department exam

Students in this course will study the topics of HVCC Calculus 1. These topics include limits, continuity, differentiation, applications of differentiations, integration of elementary functions, simple differential equations, and application of integration. This course is taught at La Salle Institute by an HVCC accredited La Salle Institute Mathematics teacher. Successful completion of this course earns the student both high school and college credit.

733 - Statistics
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.0
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 1-2

Students in this course will receive a thorough introduction in statistics that emphasizes statistical thinking. Students will be exposed to four basic themes of statistics: analyzing data, producing data, chance, and inferences. Topics that will be covered include describing and modeling distribution of data, describing relationships, sampling and surveys, designing experiments, probability, and statistical inference.

Music Courses

650 - Weekly Music Lessons
Credit: 0
Weight: 0.00
Grade Level: all musicians enrolled in the music program
Final examination: None

All students attend weekly music lessons at scheduled times during the academic week. Lessons may be individual or in groups.

651 - Symphonic Band
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: high school mostly, with some proficient middle school students
Final Examination: None

Every other day, the band gathers to rehearse or receive small-group instruction. Since the Symphonic Band plays a challenging repertoire, the make-up of this band is all high school students with a few proficient middle school musicians. The Symphonic band performs three times a year at Christmas, in the spring, and at graduation. Membership is solely determined by the band director.

653 - Jazz Ensemble
Credit: 1
Weight: 0.5
Grade Level: high school mostly, with some proficient middle school students
Final Examination: None

This nationally recognized, premier jazz ensemble is comprised of a twenty-two piece band that deploys a style similar to Duke Ellington and the Count Basie Orchestra. They tour regularly, appearing at local venues, parades, and in response to special requests from the community. The highlight of the year is performing in competition at the Berklee College of Music Jazz Festival, Fonda-Fultonville, New Hartford Jazz Festival, and the Oneida Jazz Festival. The ensemble meets 7:10 until 7:50, Monday through Thursday. Membership into this ensemble is by audition in the spring.

Physical Education Courses

002 - High School Physical Education

Competitive games and sports challenge each student’s self-discipline as team work is required. Overall physical fitness, conditioning, gross and fine motor skills, coordination, and performance are subjected to an increasingly rigorous and advanced sequence of activities. The goal is to instill the desire for a lifetime value of maintaining physical fitness.

Religion Courses

011 - Religion 9
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Religion 9 consists of two key courses that follow the Bishops Frame Work for Catholic schools. The first semester deals with the development of a Christian belief system by exploring the word of God in the Bible. The second semester helps the student understand Christian morality through studying the life of Jesus Christ. In both courses, the student comes to understand the mission and ministry of the church as it developed from the time of Jesus to the present.

021 - Religion 10
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Like Religion 9, the tenth grade courses are rooted in the teaching of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. In the first semester the students come to understand the Ministry and Mission of Salvation which is principally accomplished through Jesus’ life, death, Resurrection and Ascension. The focus is to have the students come to love Jesus in their everyday lives. The first semester is The Paschal Mystery Christ's Mission of Salvation and the second semester is the Church Christ in the World Today.

031 - Religion 11
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Religion 11 examines Christian Morality: our response to God's love. Christian moral principles, case studies and topics respecting life at all stages are covered. The students will come to see the benefits of following God's Law. They will come to see that Christian morality is more about being a loving person than about blindly following rules, that it is more about pursing holiness than about avoiding sin. The students will come to understand that living a moral life is the only way to achieve the happiness, health, and holiness that god desires for each of us.

041 - Religion 12
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

This course on the world's religions is a distinctively different course than any other religion course students have taken thus far. In this course students will explore a number of religious traditions. Beliefs and practices may seem very foreign and even strange to our students. However, it is important to remind students that all people- no matter what their religion- are created by the one living God. The students will also take a look “through a Catholic Lens" to highlight similarities and differences between Catholicism and other religions. The aim of the course is to have students develop empathy and respect for those who think and worship differently.

Science Courses

403 - Geology

Prerequisite: must be a 10th, 11th, or 12th grade student

This course is the core discipline of the earth sciences. Emerging geologists consider different phenomena such as plate tectonics and mountain building, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the long-term evolution of earth’s atmosphere, surface, and life. Due to ever-increasing demand for resources, our increasing exposure to natural hazards, and the changing climate, geology is becoming more relevant today. Through a combination of lectures, labs, and field observations, students examine mineral and rock identification, geologic mapping, and erosion by rivers and glaciers as all relate to the history of life.

404 - Introduction to Astronomy

Prerequisite: 85+ final course average in Algebra 1

This course offers an introduction to astronomy. The focus is primarily a quantitative introduction to the physics of the solar system, stars, the interstellar medium, galaxies, and the universe. A variety of astronomical observations and models help students grasp concepts. By combining lectures, labs, and field observations, emerging astronomers explore the foundations of stellar evolution, galaxies, and cosmology.

413 - Living Environment (lab requirement)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

Topics which are essential in understanding our complex and changing environment are investigated through laboratory exercises. Central themes include unity and diversity, photosynthesis, human physiology, homeostasis, reproduction and development, transmission of traits (genetics), evolution, and ecology.

415 - Biology Honors (lab requirement)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 90+ final course average in Physical Science Honors and teacher recommendation

The content of this honors level course is similar to Course 413. Due to the Math and Science aptitude of the students, the course is fast paced and topics are covered in depth.

NOTE: Students must maintain an 85+ average in order to remain in this class.

416 - AP Biology

Prerequisite: 90+ final course averages in Biology 415 and Chemistry 434/437 and teacher recommendation

This is an introductory college course in Biology. Emerging biologists improve their understanding of biological processes and systems though inquiry-based investigations. Topics explored include: evolution, cellular processes, energy and communication, genetics, information transfer, ecology, and interactions. Approximately one-quarter of course time is committed to laboratory investigations that promote application of scientific procedures.

428 - AP Environmental Science
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final Examination: departmental exam and AP Environmental Science exam in May

Prerequisite: 90+ final course average in Chemistry Honors and teacher recommendation

This course provides the equivalent of a one semester college course. Students engage with scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world. They identify and analyze natural and human-created environmental problems, evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and synthesize alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary as it embraces a wide variety of topics from geology, biology, environmental science, chemistry, and geography.

429 - Honors Physics (lab requirement)

Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 2 or Algebra 1-2

A focus on both classical and modern Physics runs through lecture and lab portions of the course. Essential topics include kinematics, statics, and dynamics, electricity and magnetism, waves, light and some theoretical Physics.

431/437 - Chemistry (lab requirement)
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04

Prerequisite: 80+ in Living Environment

A strong foundation in theoretical and descriptive chemistry is provided. Students learn the concepts needed to continue the study of Chemistry, in college. Laboratory experiments are an integral part of the course. Written lab reports and various problem solving techniques develop critical thinking and analysis skills. Major focus areas in this course include: matter and energy, atomic theory, periodic law, chemical bonding, nomenclature and formula writing, chemical equations, stoichiometry, reactions, organic chemistry, and nuclear chemistry.

433 - General Chemistry
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.00
Final examination: departmental exam

General Chemistry is an introductory course focusing on the basic principles of chemistry. Some of the key topics covered include the separation of matter, atomic theory and structure, the periodic table, ionic and covalent bonding, chemical formulas and equations, chemical reactions, acids and bases, organic chemistry, food chemistry, and nuclear chemistry. The investigation into these topics is facilitated by related laboratory investigations. A formal lab report is required for each experiment.

434/437 - Chemistry Honors
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisites: 85+ in Biology Honors, 90+ course average in previous Math course, and teacher recommendation

A strong foundation in theoretical and descriptive chemistry, particularly the quantitative aspects, is earned from this course. Emerging chemists will gain an exceptional background that supports the study of chemistry in college. Laboratory experiments are an integral part of this course. Material covered is similar to Chemistry 431 but in much more depth.

NOTE: Students must maintain an 85+ average in order to remain in this class.

435 - Environmental Science
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Course 431, 433 or 434

The scientific process is applied to environmental analyses within key topics such as: ecological structure; earth systems; energy flow; and atmospheric, land, and water science. Course topics are framed within the management of natural resources and analysis of private and governmental decisions. Students utilize actual case studies and conduct five hands-on, unit-long research activities. During this process, emerging environmental scientists discover the relationships between bureaucratic and political mandates as they apply to data collection and developing responsible solutions.

436 - Environmental Science Honors
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.08
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 85+ final course average in Chemistry Honors and teacher recommendation

A strong focus on the interactions between geology, astronomy, hydrology, and meteorology prevails in this course. Emerging environmental scientists begin to think systemically as they identify the relationships in systems. An introduction to lab procedures found in college and higher level sciences is provided. Critical thinking as students diagnose issues and synthesize solutions hallmarks the learning process.

NOTE: Students must maintain an 85+ average in order to remain in this class.

446 - AP Physics 1 (lab requirement)

Prerequisite: a 90+ final course grade in Honors Physics and an 85+ final course grade in Precalculus

As an advanced course that focuses on classical Physics, students will study kinematics, statics and dynamics, electricity and magnetism, fluid motion, and wave theory at a faster pace and in greater depth.

447 - Anatomy & Nutrition
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: 85+ in Living Environment, Chemistry, or Environmental Science

This course is a detailed study of the structure and function of the human body. It is designed for students who are interested in pursuing careers in the health and life sciences. Topics covered include: chemical organization, cells, tissues, as well as the major systems of the body – integument, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. A strong emphasis is placed on homeostasis and the development of disease.

449 - Applied Physics
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.04
Final Examination: departmental exam

Prerequisite: successful completion of Algebra 1

This is an introductory course that focuses on the basic principles of Physics. A “hands-on” approach is used with a strong emphasis on understanding concepts. Key topics include motion, forces, electricity and magnetism, waves, light and optical systems, and modern Physics.

454 - HVCC Physics (Trigonometry based); Taught at HVCC
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: HVCC final examination

Prerequisite: successful completion of Chemistry and Algebra 2/Trigonometry

This course in physics uses various methods of problem solving techniques and critical thinking methods as well as hands-on laboratory experience to enable students to understand a broad range of topics in physics. Problem solving techniques include the use of basic mathematical approaches to find solutions. An understanding of algebra and basic right triangle trigonometry are required. Students are also expected to be able to verbally express the methods used in reaching a solution to problems presented in class. The course of study includes: problem solving techniques (including graphing, dimensional analysis, and statistical analysis of data), linear motion and two-dimensional motion, Newton’s laws of motion, conservation of momentum, work, power, conservation of energy, static electricity and electrical potential, electric circuits, magnetism and electromagnetism, wave properties, properties of sound and light, and a broad overview of modern physics. Successful completion of these courses earns the student both high school and college credit.

455 - HVCC Physics (Calculus based); Taught at HVCC
Credit: 1
Weight: 1.12
Final examination: HVCC final examination

Prerequisite: successful completion of Chemistry and Calculus

This course in physics uses various methods of problem solving techniques and critical thinking methods as well as hands-on laboratory experience to enable students to understand a broad range of topics in physics. Problem solving techniques include the use of basic mathematical approaches to find solutions. An understanding of algebra and basic right triangle trigonometry are required. Students are also expected to be able to verbally express the methods used in reaching a solution to problems presented in class. The course of study includes: problem solving techniques (including graphing, dimensional analysis, and statistical analysis of data), linear motion and two-dimensional motion, Newton’s laws of motion, conservation of momentum, work, power, conservation of energy, static electricity and electrical potential, electric circuits, magnetism and electromagnetism, wave properties, properties of sound and light, and a broad overview of modern physics. Successful completion of these courses earns the student both high school and college credit.

493 - Introduction to Nanotechnology

Prerequisite: 85+ final course averages in Algebra 1, Geometry, and Physics plus teacher recommendation

This course offers a broad overview of nanotechnology and its applications to engineering, biomedical research, and environmental concerns. Discussion centers on interdisciplinary consideration of how the confluence of various sciences offers a scaffold for nanotechnology. Specific topics include the genesis of the science, implementation, impact, and implications. An important element of the course involves applications of this technology in electronic devices, biomedical solutions, environmental approaches, and energy production. High school students interested in acquiring a fundamental understanding of nanotechnology as a future career exploration should consider enrolling.